Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Merging Cells : Ribbon Option

Select the cells you want to merge from the ribbon, select the layout command tab in the merge group, click merge cells the selected cells are merged.

Menu Option Merging Cells: Quick

Select the cells you want to merge Right click within the selected cells select merge cells the selected cells are merged.

Merging Cells

Cells can be merged either from the Quick Menu or the Ribbon.

Merging and Splitting Table Cells

When working with tables, you may occasionally want to merge two or more cells, or split one cell into multiple cells. Word makes this easy.

Cnahing Table Position Table Properties Option

Select the table by clicking the table move handle located near the table's upper left corner Form the layout tab, in the table group, click table properties or right click inside the table select table properties the table properties dialog box appears.

Changing Table Position

Tables are automatically aligned to the left margin of the page. However, tables can also be positioned along the right margin, in the center, or set at a specific distance from the left margin. You can adjust table placement using the Table Properties dialog box box or the indent option.

Setting Margins

text in a table cell Note: To alter table placement within the document, refer to Changing Table Position.Setting Margins Just as with page margins, cell margins refer to the space around

Repeating Tows on Subsequent Pages

If your table spans more than one page, you may want to repeat the heading row(s) on each page of the table. This makes columns easier to identify.

Table Options Creating Heading Rows

To identify the content of each column in a table, you may want to use the top row of your table as a headingg row. To create a headingg row, simply type the appropriate column heading in each cell across the toprow and, if desired, use unique formatting to distnguish the text (e.g., bold or all caps).

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Creating a Table from Existing Text

The convert text to table feature allows you to create a table from existing text. You specify how columns are defined based on separators (i.e., recurring symbols or breaks) in your text. For example, if strings of text are separated by commas, each such string would be converted into a separate column. Paragraphs generally indicate rows.

Adding Information to the Table

you can add any text or objects to table cells that you could add to the document outside the table. To place information in separate dells, however, you will need to move your insertion point from cell to cell in the table, To move from one cell to another, use one of the following methods:

Creating a table : Insert Option

Place the insertion point where you want the table to appear From the Insert tab, in the tables group, click table the table sub-menu appears. select insert table the insert table dialog box appears. under table size, type a value or use the nudge buttons to specify the numver of columns and rows to specify column width, under autofut behavioru , select fixed clumn width and ype a value or use the nudge buttons to specjify the desired size to allow the table to expand as you typw under autofut behavior, select autofit to contents.

Creating a Table : Drag Option

;Place the insertion point were you want the table to appear From the insert tabk, in the Tables group, click table the table sub-menu appears. Select the appropriate dimensions by dragging yoru mouse in the table grid An empty tale appears on your screen and you are ready to begin adding information.

Creating a Table: Quick Tables

Word provides severeal preformatted tables which can easily be insertd with the Quick Table option.

Table Basics

A table is a grid of cells with individual cell occurring at the intersection of correspoding rows and columns. Tables are highly customizable and are useful for a variety of tasks, from presenting numerical data to creating unique text layouts.

Changing the Starting Mumber

Select the numvered list On the Home command tab, in the Paragraph group, click on the Numbering buttton The Numbered list pull-down menu appears. In Select Set Numbering Value The set numbering value dialog box appears. In the Set value to scroll box, type or use the nudge buttons to select the numver to start the numbered list Click Ok.

Customizing Numbered Lists

Customizing your numbered list allows you to have a wider variety of styles for numbers. Word provides several different ways of customizing your numbers in order to create an effective numbered list. The following instructions assume that a numbered list has already been created.

Adding Shading

Perhaps you want to add information to a step but do not want to create a separate list item. Using this simple keystroke will place your insertion point on the next line without a number appearing.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Applying Bullets as you Type

When you are ready to add bulleted text to your document, use the following steps: Place the insertion point where you want the bullets to begin In the Hom command tab, in the Paragraph group, click Bullets Note: Word inserts the first bullet and moves the insertion point a quarter inch to the right, where you can begin typing text.

Bullets and Numbering Using Bulleted LIsts

With Word, you can make bulleted lists, numbered lists, or outlines. You can create bulleted lists using the home command tab or AutoFormatting.

adding shading

Select paragraph to which you want to add shading Open the Borders and Shading dialog box Select the Shading tab From the Fill pull-down list, select the desired fill effect Click Ok.

Adding Borders and Shading

From the Ribbon, select the Home command tab Within the Paragraph section, the Shading and border options are available. Select paragraph to which you want to add shading and /or border To add a border, click Borders select the desired border option To add shading, click the next shadding select the desired shading option

Borders and Shading Optiosn

Use the Home Commmand tab to quickly add borders and shading to paragraphs. Both borders and shading can be applied to the same pargraph.

Working with Tabs From the Ruler

Working with tabs using the Ruler option is a quick and easy wat to set and adjust tabs. The Ruler options allow you to set, move, delete, or change tabs.
Tab Types
Tabs come in different types which are defined by the way text aligns with the tab. The following table explains the different tab types.

Setting Tabs

Tabs allow you to position text exctly where you would like it. To avoid problems with text alignment, use tabs rather than spaces. The default tab settings for Microsoft Word are every half-inch.

Inserting Symbols

Use the Symblo dialog box to locate symblos, characters from other languages, arrow, and other characters. Symbols inserted into documents can then be formatted as regular text.

Inserting Symbols and Special Characters

wHEN CREATING DOCUMENTS, YOU MAY NEED TO USE A SYMBOL OR SPECIAL CHARACTER THAT DOES NOT APPEAR ON THE KEYBOARD. These symblos and special characters can be accessed through the symblol dialog box.

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Specifying the Pages to Print

This section lists options for printing and the selection or specifications that you must make in the Page range section of the Print dialog box to achieve the desired results.

Printing Options for Specific Pages: The Print Dialog Box

To use the options described in this document, you must access the Print dialog box.
1. From the Office Button, click Print. The Print dialog box appears.

Changing Font, Size, and Color: Menu Option

1. Select the desired text
2. From the Home tab, in the Font group, click Font The Font dialog box appears.
3. In the Font text box, type the desired font name or from the font scroll list, select the desired font
4. Int the Size text box, type the desired font size or from the size scroll list, select the desired size
5. from the font color pull-down list, select desired font color
6. in the effects section, select any additional font effects Examples: Small caps, Superscript, Subscript
7. Click Ok

Changing Font, Size, and Color: Menu Option

Contextual Toolbar Option

1. Select the desired text The contextual toolbar appears above the text.
2. To select a different font, From the Font pull-down list, select the desired font
3. To select a different size, from the Font Size pull-down list, select the desired font size
4. To select a different color, click the next to Font Color select the desired font color.

Changing Font, Size, and Color: ribbon Option

1. Select the desired text
2. From the Home tab, in the Font group, from the Font Pull-Down list, select the desired font
Note: As you hover your mouse over a font, Word previews it live on your selected text.
3. to select a different size, from the Font Size pull-Down list, select desire font size
4. To select a different color, click the next to Font Color select the desired font color.

Changing Font, Size, and Color

Word allows you to change the font, size, and color from the Ribbon, the Font dialog box, or the Contextual toolbar. The Ribbon and Contextual toolbar options are easier and faster ways of changing the look of your text. However, the Font dialog box provides more options and allows you to preview your text through the Preview box.

Working with Text Options

You can format the text in your word documents by changing the font, size, color, character formatting, and text alignment. This document provides instructions for many different formatting options that can give your document a unique look.

Inserting Page Breaks

Word has two types of page breaks. The first is a natural page break. This occurs when the information has filled an entire page and needs to flow onto the next page. The second type is forced, often referred to as a hard page break. Forced page breaks occur only when the user inserts a hard page break. Additional pages can also be started using section breaks.

Numbering Pages

Word lets you easily enter page numbers in your document by using the Insert command tab. Page numbers become part of the header or footer.
1. From the Insert command tab, within the Header & Footer group, click Page Number
2. Select top of Page of Bottom of Page select a pre-formatted page number placement
3.Optional: to specifically format the look of your page numbers, select Format Page Numbers the Page Number Format dialog box appears.

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Adjusting Document Margins: Dialog Box Option

To set your own margins, use the Page Setup dialog box.
1. From the Page Layout command tab, in the Page Setup group, click Page Setup
2. On the Margins tab, in the Margins section, adjust the margins as needed
3. Click Ok

Adjusting Document Margins: Using a Margin Preset Option

1. From the Page Layout command tab, in the Page Setup group, click
2. Select one of the preset margin options Example: Wide for one-inch vertical margins and two-inch horizontal margins.

Adjusting Document Margins

The Ruler is used as a quick way to adjust margins. Margins may also be adjusted by using a preset option provided by Word, or through the Page setup dialog box.

Page Formatting Options

Word 2007 comes with many formatting options for all types of documents. This document describes page formatting options can affect a page, a section, or your entire document.

Working With Indents: Ruler Option

Instead of using the Paragraph dialog box, you can make indent adjustments using the Ruler. Shown here is a graphic of the Ruler.

Working With Indents: Paragraph Dialog box Option

1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph
2. From the Home command tab, in the Paragraph group, click The Paragraph dialog box appears.
3. Select Indents and Spacing tab
4. Under the Indentation section, in the Left and Right text boxes, type the desired amount of indentation (in inches)
5. To select a different indent for the first line, from the Special pull-down list, select First line or Hanging
6. If you selected a First line or Hanging indent, in the By text box, type the desired amount of indentation (in inches)
7. Click Ok

Working with Indents

Word offers three types of indents: Normal indents, first line indents, and hanging indents. A normal indent inserts a specified amount of space between the page margin and all of the lines in a paragraph. A first line indent inserts space between the first line and the page margin so it looks like a tab was used. A hanging indent uses a normal indent for the first line and then moves subsequent line farther to the right. Paragraph indents can be set using the Paragraph dialog box or the Ruler.

Adjusting paragraph Spacing

1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph
2. From the Home command tab, within the Paragraph group, click Paragraph
3. Select the Indents and Spacing tab
4. Under the Spacing section, in the Before text box, type the amount of space (in points) to appear before the paragraph
5. In the After text box, type the amount of space (in points) to appear after the paragraph
6. Click Ok

Adjusting Line Spacing: Dialog Box Option

1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph
2. From the Home command tab, in the Paragraph group, click Paragraph
3. Select Indents and Spacing tab
4. From the Line spacing pull-down menu, select the desired spacing
5. Click Ok

Command Tab Option

1. Place the insertion point in the desired paragraph
2. From the Home command tab, in the Paragraph group, click Line Spacing Select the desired line spacing.

Friday, September 24, 2010

Paragraph Formatting Options

This document will help you use paragraph formatting options to achive a desired look for your document.

Document Theme

The Document Theme toolbar allows you to choose a preset theme for your document, or create and save your own theme.

Document Margins

The Document Margins toolbar allows you to designate the left, right, top,, bottom, header, and footer margins.

Borders and Shading

The Borders and Shading toolbar allows you to edit a border in terms of type, style, color, size, shading, and shading pattern.

Bullets and Numbering

The Bullets and Numbering toolbar allows you to add bullets or numbering, adjust indents, customize bullets and numbering, and designate what number or letter a list starts on.

Alignment and Spacing

The Alignment and Spacing toolbar allows you to designate the horizontal and vertical alignment, text orientation, paragraph spacing, and indentation.


The Style toolbar allows you to add preformatted styles to your text, create your own style, as well as clear any formatting.


The Font toolbar allows you to edit aspects of the text in your document, as well as add customizations.

The Formating Palette

The Formatting Palette allows you to format your document in areas of font, styles, alignment and spelling, bullets and numbering, borders and shodowing, document margins, and document theme. Theis cocument describes each of the main sectionsof this palette.

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Working with Spell Check

Spell Check is a feature that checks for spelling errors in a document. Spell Check is not always right. Spelling can be checked simultaneously with grammar.
1. Activating Automatic Spell Check
2. Modifying the Dictionary
3. Correcting Spelling

Selecting Text

Selecting text is a basic editing function used in Word. In most cases, text must be selected before it can be formatted. Once your text is selected, you can format, cut, copy, or paste your text. For example, by selecting specific text you can change the font size of only the selected text. Several methods are available for selecting text. use the optiong that is most convenient for you or use the technique that best fits your task. Keyboard shortcuts can also be used to select text.
1. From Keyboard (like, Ctrl+A, Shift+Arrow Keys)
2. From Mouse (Like Double Click, Left Click, Tripp Left Click)
3. From Keyboard & Mouse (Like Ctril or Alt, with left click)

Using the Undo Cammand

If text was accidentally deleted or if there was some type of editing mistake, you may be able to reverse th last action using the undo command.

Arrow Keys

The arrow keys move the insertion point up or down one line at a time and left or right one space at a time. The arrow keys do not delete; they allow you to position the insertion point exactly where you want it.

Delete Character

The [Backspace] key moves the insertion point to the left one space at a time, eliminating text or space. The [Delete] key eliminates text or space to the right of the insertion point.

Word Wrap

Text is wrapped at the end of each line and continues on the next line; you do not have to press [Enter] or [Return]

Typing Features

As you start on your document, you should be aware of some typing features in Word.

Insertion Point and Pointers

The blinking vertical line located in the window is the insertion point. As you type, keyed text will appear to the let of the insertion point.

Saving a Document : Subsequent Times

Use the Save command to save a document the has already been named and saved. If you select the Save command and you have not saved the document before, the Save As dialog box will appear. Use the Save command frequently to save changes to your document.
1. Press [Ctrl] + [S] or from the office button, select save or on the quick access toolbar, click save Once you have created a Word document and typed some text, you may want to edit your work by adding, moving, or deleting text. This document covers the basic editing functions of selecting, moving, and deleting text as well as shows you how to use the Undo and redo commands.

Saving a Document : First Time

Use this option if you are saving your document for the first time or if you are saving an already saved file under a new name.
1. From the office button, select save as. Note: Do not click on the side arrow as it will not allow the save As function to occur
2. From the Save in Pull-down list , make the appropriate selection: To save to your H: drive or another drive, select (H:) or another network drive.
3.. In the File name text box, type a filename (Word automatically adds a .docx extension.)
4. Click Save The document is saved.

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Blogs (Web Logs)

Blogging has become a huge form of media. A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketchblog, videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), audio (podcasting) are part of a wider network of social media. Micro-blogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts.


The Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or less precisely as "the Web") is a more interactive medium of mass media, and can be briefly described as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.

Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is the system of interconnectedcomputer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is the contents, or the interconnecteddocuments, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is accessible through the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.

Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which most individuals could have a means of exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a web site has the potential to address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive. It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content") has been made available, it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and reliability of information contained in web pages (in many cases, self-published). The invention of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society.

"Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the same message through different media channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence". Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print and on the web without manual conversion effort. An increasing number of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make it even more difficult to achieve the objective “create once, publish many”.

The internet is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything is becoming accessible via the internet. Instead of picking up a newspaper, or watching the 10 o'clock news, people will log onto the internet to get the news they want, when they want it. Many workers listen to the radio through the internet while sitting at their desk. Games are played through the internet.

The Internet and Education: Findings of the Pew Internet & American Life Project[5] Even the education system relies on the internet. Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They have web pages where students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes even have class blogs where students must post weekly, and are graded on their contributions. The internet thus far has become an extremely dominant form of media.


'Film' encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The name comes from the photographic film (also called filmstock), historically the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist — motion pictures (or just pictures and "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks — and commonly movies.

Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. They comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion; a psychological effect identified as beta movement.

Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten and inspire audiences. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the film message. Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them.


The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. With all technological endeavours a number of technical terms and slang are developed please see the list of broadcasting terms for a glossary of terms used.

Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting over frequency bands that are highly regulated by the Federal Communications Commission. Such regulation includes determination of the width of the bands, range, licencing, types of receivers and transmitters used, and acceptable content.

Cable programs are often broadcast simultaneously with radio and television programs, but have a more limited audience. By coding signals and having decoding equipment in homes, cable also enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-view services.

A broadcasting organisation may broadcast several programs at the same time, through several channels (frequencies), for example BBC One and Two. On the other hand, two or more organisations may share a channel and each use it during a fixed part of the day. Digital radioand digital television may also transmit multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble.

When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. In 2004 a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies combined to produce podcasting. Podcasting is an asynchronous broadcast/narrowcast medium, with one of the main proponents being Adam Curry and his associates the Podshow.

Audio recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. This involves the use of audio equipment such as microphones, recording devices and loudspeakers. From early beginnings with the invention of thephonograph using purely mechanical techniques, the field has advanced with the invention of electrical recording, the mass production of the78 record, the magnetic wire recorder followed by the tape recorder, the vinyl LP record. The invention of the compact cassette in the 1960s, followed by Sony's Walkman, gave a major boost to the mass distribution of music recordings, and the invention of digital recording and thecompact disc in 1983 brought massive improvements in ruggedness and quality. The most recent developments have been in digital audio players.

An album is a collection of related audio recordings, released together to the public, usually commercially.

The term record album originated from the fact that 78 RPM Phonograph disc records were kept together in a book resembling a photo album. The first collection of records to be called an "album" was Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite, release in April 1909 as a four-disc set byOdeon records.[3][4] It retailed for 16 shillings — about £15 in modern currency.

A music video (also promo) is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. Modern music videos were primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. Although the origins of music videos go back much further, they came into their own in the 1980s, when Music Television's format was based on them. In the 1980s, the term "rock video" was often used to describe this form of entertainment, although the term has fallen into disuse.

Music videos can accommodate all styles of filmmaking, including animation, live action films, documentaries, and non-narrative, abstract film


Electronic media and print media include:
Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio and television.
Many instances of various types of recorded discs or tapes. In the 20th century, these were mainly used for music. Video and computeruses followed.
Film, most often used for entertainment, but also for documentaries.
The Internet, which has many uses and presents both opportunities and challenges. Examples can include Blogs and podcasts (such asnews, music, pre-recorded speech, and video)
Mobile phones, which can be used for rapid breaking news and short clips of entertainment like jokes, horoscopes, alerts, games, music, and advertising
Video games, which have developed into a mass form of media since cutting-edge devices such as the PlayStation 3, XBox 360, and Wiibroadened their use.